Termites or white ants, in some countries, were from the Order Isoptera. Culliney & Grace (2000) reported that there are more than 2700 species of isopteran in the world. In Peninsular Malaysia alone, there are about 175 species of termite from 42 genera (Tho, 1992). Termites can be classified under three main groups; dampwood termites, drywood termites and subterranean termites. The most destructive is subterranean termites and termite control is generally focused only on to this group (Abdul Hafiz & Mohd Hadzri, 2007).
“Knowledge and understanding of subterranean termite foraging biology and ecology could help in their detection and controlIn addition, subterranean termite is a cryptic insect. Knowledge and understanding of their biology, foraging area and the ecology help a lot in their detection and control. Thus the right choice of type of termiticide and the proper way in termiticide application technique are important to ensure the job efficacy. Recently, some of the pest control company proposing to their client a minimum internal drilling liquid termiticide application method. As we all have been told that traditional application technology associated with soil barrier treatment is destructive to property owners and needs the use of a high amount of finished product because it specifies a thorough and uniform application to the interior and exterior of the building by drilling holes through the slab near to the beam foundation (Potter and Hillery, 2003; Hu and Hickman 2006; Abdul Hafiz & Abu Hassan, 2006; Abdul Hafiz et al, 2006; Abdul Hafiz et al, 2007).
According to Potter and Hillery (2003), it is believed that the application of repellent termiticide can be more destructive to property due to the traditional application method. With the new non-repellent termiticide in the market, the termiticide can be applied as minimum as possible solely around the exterior building perimeter plus limited interior, especially at the termite infestation area. The method is practice by some of the pest control due to the unique character of the termiticide. The delayed mode of action permits transfer of this toxicant from exposed termites to unexposed nest mates through social interactions including mutual grooming, thus causing secondary mortality in subterranean termite population (Potter & Hillery 2003; Hu & Hickman, 2006; Gurbel et al, (2006); Abdul Hafiz et al, 2007a,b).
Preparing the termiticide solution
“termiticide advantages of the unique character of its delayed mode of action” Recently, the termite control team from School Of Biological Sciences, USM had conducted a field trial with the new non-repellent termiticide, Premise 200SC. The study showed a very promising results, where all the structures were treated as minimum interior drilling as possible showed full control of the foraging population inside the structure within 3 months (Abdul Hafiz et al, 2007a,b). However, to apply this method, termite foraging study need to be conducted to determine the foraging territory, population size and the numbers of the termite colony infested the building. In addition, this study also showed that placement of the termiticide directly in the vicinity of an entry point of foraging termites was the most important determinant for full control of termites.
As a conclusion from this study demonstrates that the minimum internal drilling method will minimizing the termiticide usage, less number of holes on the floor, less chemical & labor cost and more time saving. More important is less chemical into the environment but still provide effective and longer protection where it is a good option to pest control. Nevertheless, in termite control, IPM program is a must such as moisture management, inspection, monitoring, education, and collaboration of all termite-affected parties.
The State Building Commission identified four city blocks within the new capital city for the location of the University campus. This land was located on the north edge of the planned downtown area--a flat, treeless plain that offered little in the way of natural beauty, and eventually would stand in the way of the railroads which were building toward Lincoln. In spite of this, the Building Commission's decision held and the University of Nebraska campus was born.The first campus comprised four city blocks bounded on the west by 10th street and on the east by 12th street. The northern boundary was T Street, and on the south, soon abutting downtown, was R Street. University Hall, the first building constructed for University purposes, was sited in the center of the campus in 1870, and remained the only structure on campus for 15 years. This original four block tract remained intact until 1908, when the precursor to Memorial Stadium was constructed north of T Street in what was then a residential area.
Today the original campus remains and is home to several of the University's important historic buildings.